Foreign Language Programs in Crisis: Programs Closing, Faculty Losing Jobs

September 30, 2010

Lately people have been sending me all sorts of news articles about enrollments dropping in second and foreign language programs in high schools and universities. Here are a few examples:

“Community, Adult Education Programs Will be Missed”,, by Susan Steinmueller, Sept. 12, 2010

“Foreign language classes unresolved” – Isureveille, by Catherine Threlkeld, September 23, 2010

Cuts hurting language classes – The NewsStar by Carlos D. Fandal, September 26, 2010

Replacing Teachers with Technology – Fox News by Meredith Orban, September 28, 2010

Strapped Schools Ax Foreign Language Programs – Milwaukee – Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, by John Schmid, October 23, 2010

It breaks my heart when I hear about programs that have decreasing enrollment or worse, under threat of closure due to low enrollment. From my experience of working with schools and programs over the past decade as a marketing consultant, I can honestly say that there is no “magic bullet” in a situation like this.

If you’ve been given notice that your program is about to close, managers and teachers essentially face a crisis situation. Not only is their passion about to be killed, and they know their students’ futures will be shaped in a very different way, but their livelihood may be gone, too.

What are language teachers, administrators and foreign language advocates to do?

The only answer it seems is find a way to revitalize not only our programs, but also interest in them. Parents and community stake holders need to see the value of second and foreign language learning and the benefits that students derive by studying them. There is no quick fix to this one, I’m afraid. If you manage or teach in a foreign language program, the best thing to do right now is to keep it vibrant and alive. If your program is under the threat of closure, there may still be time to implement a revitalization, public relations or marketing strategy to rebuild your program’s health so it doesn’t get shut down, or replaced by a computer program.


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Update – January 2018 – This blog has had over 1.8 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Reading strategies: Differences between summarizing and synthesizing

September 29, 2010

This semester I am teaching a course on Becoming an Effective Learner at the University of Calgary. I have asked my students to do a reading synthesis assignment on the different readings we have each week.  In today’s post I’m sharing some of the information I gave them about the differences between summarizing and synthesizing information in terms of reading strategies and research.

If you teach reading and you’d like to share it with your own students, you can download a copy here: difference-between-summarizing-and-synthesizing

Summarizing and synthesizing are both strategies used in reading and research. They are important skills, as they help learners make sense of what they reading.

Though they are both used as reading comprehension and research strategies, it is important to recognize that summarizing and synthesizing are different activities. Each has a different purpose, process and end result.

These are the main differences between them:


  • A basic reading technique.
  • Pulls together information in order to highlight the important points.
  • Re-iterates the information.
  • Shows what the original authors wrote.
  • Addresses one set of information (e.g. article, chapter, document) at a time. Each source remains distinct.
  • Presents a cursory overview.
  • Demonstrates an understanding of the overall meaning.


  • An advanced reading technique.
  • Pulls together information not only to highlight the important points, but also to draw your own conclusions.
  • Combines and contrasts information from different sources.
  • Not only reflects your knowledge about what the original authors wrote, but also creates something new out of two or more pieces of writing.
  • Combines parts and elements from a variety of sources into one unified entity.
  • Focuses on both main ideas and details.
  • Achieves new insight.

As you are reading information, be aware of whether you are simply re-iterating what someone else has said, or whether you are assimilating all the information in order to create one cohesive document that demonstrates your understanding of the concepts.

For both activities, it may be helpful to write out the main points, using diagrams or charts to help you.

Here are some helpful resources:

Comprehension Strategy – Synthesis / Summarization / Concluding

How to Synthesize Multiple Sources

What is a Synthesis Question?

What it means to comprehend

Reading Strategies


Here’s a link for sharing: Reading strategies: Differences between summarizing and synthesizing

Update – January 2018 – This blog has had over 1.8 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Outsourcing is the new plagiarism: What teachers need to know

September 28, 2010

In a recent post, I gave some resources for teachers to find out if their students are plagiarizing. I’ll be blunt though. Plagiarizing is soooo 20th century! (Yawn.)

Some students make a game of staying one step ahead of “the system”. In the 21st century, the really clever cheaters aren’t plagiarizing, they’re outsourcing their assignments. It’s kind of like getting your Mom, Dad or best friend to do your homework for you, only more sophisticated. Any student with a credit card  can do it.

And if you think you’re safe because your students are too young to have credit cards of your own, think again. The pre-paid credit card Aunt Mabel gave to little Johnny last Christmas will work just fine, thanks very much.

So, how do they do it?

There are Internet services out there who sole purpose is to match those who provide freelance or outsourced services with those who need them. (I won’t list them here, as that might be considered unethical for someone who is employed as a part-time university faculty member.) Legitimate small business owners will use such services to find virtual assistants, transcribers, typists, graphic designers, web designer and other providers of easily outsourced work. Such sites post all kinds of disclaimers about what type of work is or isn’t allowed to be offered or solicited. That doesn’t stop people from plainly saying what services they want or will provide.

For someone who lives in a developed country, outsourcing your work to India, the Philippines or other countries where workers get paid much less has become the norm in some businesses. Leaving the ethics and politics of globalization aside, the key message here is that it’s not just companies who are outsourcing work any more. Students are, too.

I recently saw an ad that looked something like this:

“Assignment: Write a 10-page history paper for a 300-level university course on the military strategies employed during the American Civil War. The paper must be ten double-spaced pages, written in Times New Roman, 12-point font with one-inch margins. At least 15 references are needed and citations are required in APA format. Must be written in perfect English, spell-checked and grammar-checked. Due: three weeks from the posting date of this ad.”

Suppliers bid on the project. At the time I saw the ad, bids had come in from a variety of countries and hovered around $30 USD. India seemed to be a popular country for outsourced academic papers, it seems. But suppliers from a variety of other countries were evident, too. Some bidders stated that they had PhDs themselves and would guarantee a well-written paper. It is safe to say that those who bid on such projects are  likely highly educated, fluent in academic English and think that $30 USD is worth the effort.

This is all done, of course, using anonymous e-mail addresses that can’t be traced back to the student. The work is all done on line. It’s not plagiarized. Rather, it is custom-written by an outsourced ghost writer thousands of miles away.

The paper is e-mailed to the student by the supplier, making all the plagiarism detectors that I mentioned in the previous post completely irrelevant. Those papers can never be found on the Internet. They haven’t been purchased by a service who has a bank of papers on numerous topics, ready to be shipped out to buyers. Instead, outsourced papers are specifically written according to the exact criteria given by the student (who re-iterates what his or her instructor has told him).

Let’s do the math:

A student works at a local pizza take-out and makes $15 per hour. If we take taxes and other payroll deductions into account, that students would have to work for about three hours – or maximum, four hours – to earn about $30 to pay the outsourced paper writer.

How long would it take him to write his own paper? At least 10 hours, but more likely 12 or 15, if he writes an excellent paper that merits an A grade.

Simple economics shows that the student benefits financially from outsourcing his paper. The supplier to whom the paper is outsourced benefits, as he is making a decent wage in comparison to whatever he or she might earn in a comparable time period in their local currency. Who loses? Well, the student loses out on the opportunity to learn research techniques and skills involved in writing a paper, of course. But mostly, it’s the current academic system and those who work in it who lose. The ideals that they hold regarding ethics, integrity and academic honour are thrown out the window.

Once the student has established a relationship with his outsourced ghost writer, he can contract the same academic-on-demand to write all his papers for the same course, thus ensuring that there is consistency in the tone, writing style and research skills of all his assignments.

My guess is that academic papers will become a thing of the past. Only those who sincerely enjoy research and the process of learning will be encouraged — or perhaps even allowed — to undertake academic research. Rather than demanding that students produce papers for marks, we may reserve the right to teach advanced research skills to those who are willing to commit to and engage in the entire process.

The question isn’t “How do we stop our students from plagiarizing or outsourcing?” but rather, “How do we teach students the value, joy and benefit of learning for themselves?”

Related posts:


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Update – January 2018 – This blog has had over 1.8 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Are your students plagiarizing? Here’s how you find out

September 26, 2010

Plagiarism is a hot topic among educators today. The Internet has revolutionized how students research, find and relate to information. Plagiarism used to consist of copying word for word from books. Nowadays a few simple key strokes will cut and paste information from any website into a student’s papers.

There are a number of ways teachers can figure out if their students are plagiarizing. There are a number of websites and programs that will help you do just that. You type in a portion of your student’s paper and run it through a plagiarism checker to see if those words appear elsewhere on the Internet. If they do, your student may have plagiarized. Check out these free online resources:

Related posts:


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Update – January 2018 – This blog has had over 1.8 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

6 Reasons I love Glee – a language teacher’s point of view

September 23, 2010

This week, the new season of the TV show Glee aired. When I first heard about the show, I wasn’t interested. At first glance it looked fluffy, silly, and not particularly engaging. I don’t watch much television so when I do pick a show to watch it needs to engage my mind, as well as entertain me. For some reason last year, an episode of Glee got recorded and I, grumbling and growling, finally agreed to watch an episode of it. I was hooked.

As a language teacher I can’t help but notice that this hot new TV show offers a veritable cornucopia of material to use in class. Here are a few examples:

  1. The characters, young high school students speak eloquently. Verbal prowess is the norm among the characters.
  2. In speaking eloquently, the characters become role models for clear, concise and articulate communication.
  3. There’s much less slang than on other comedy shows.
  4. Characters express a wide array of emotions with no vulgar language. Nothing needs to be “bleeped out”. They find appropriate words to express their feelings.
  5. Characters don’t use phrases such as “So, like…. ya know,” leaving the listener to fill in the blanks.
  6. Characters will correct each other’s language mistakes. In this season’s premiere, this exchange happened between lead characters Rachel and Finn:

Finn: Rachel is what you’d call a controlist.

Rachel: I’m controlling. ‘Controlist’ isn’t a word.

Where else on television do you get teenage characters who show their vulnerabilities as they try to find their way in the world in a lighthearted, yet serious show where being articulate, and using the English language properly are highlighted?


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Update – January 2018 – This blog has had over 1.8 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

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