The ethics of outsourcing: Contract cheating in the health professions

February 15, 2019

This morning I had the pleasure of providing a continuing education session to the Orthopaedic Surgeons at their City Wide (Grand) Rounds. The session was offered live at the Foothills campus and participants from various hospitals around the city joined by video conference.

2019 02 15 Ortho CWR Poster[1]Learning Objectives:

  • Define and explain what contract cheating is
  • Explain how the global contract cheating industry works
  • Understand the impact of contract cheating among medical and health program students

Here’s a copy of the title slide:

Title slide - Orthopaedic surgery rounds

References:

Bagshaw, E. (2016, May 26). University of Sydney’s medical school in second cheating controversy. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/education/university-of-sydneys-medical-school-in-second-cheating-controversy-20160525-gp3g3h.html

Bretag, T. (2017). Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, Good Practice Note: Addressing contract cheating to safeguard academic integrity  Retrieved from https://www.teqsa.gov.au/latest-news/publications/good-practice-note-addressing-contract-cheating-safeguard-academic

Clarke, R., & Lancaster, T. (2006). Eliminating the successor to plagiarism: Identifying the usage of contract cheating sites. Paper presented at the Second International Plagiarism Conference, Gateshead, UK.

Curtis, G. J., & Clare, J. (2017). How Prevalent is contract cheating and to what extent are students repeat offenders? Journal of Academic Ethics, 15(2), 115-124. doi:10.1007/s10805-017-9278-x

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Contract cheating: A Canadian perspective.  Retrieved from http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcblog/2018/07/24/contract-cheating-a-canadian-perspective/

Eaton, S. E., & Edino, R. I. (2018). Strengthening the research agenda of educational integrity in Canada: A review of the research literature and call to action. Journal of Educational Integrity, 14(1). Retrieved from https://edintegrity.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s40979-018-0028-7 doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0028-7

Hosney, M. I., & Fatima, S. (2014). Attitude of students towards cheating and plagiarism: University case study. Journal of Applied Sciences, 14(8), 748-757. doi:10.3923/jas.2014.748.757

International Center for Academic Integrity. (2016). Institutional toolkit to combat contract cheating  Retrieved from http://integrity.fiu.edu/pdfs/Contract%20Cheating.pdf

Lancaster, T. (2018). US in first place for essays orders (not surprising), with the UK and Canada in equal second place [Tweet].   Retrieved from https://twitter.com/DrLancaster/status/1029014675198013440

Lancaster, T., & Clarke, R. (2008). The phenomena of contract cheating. In T. S. Roberts (Ed.), Student plagiarism in an online world: Problems and solutions (pp. 144-158). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.

Lancaster, T., & Clarke, R. (2015). Examining contract cheating, essay mill use and academic misconduct by students on health courses.  Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323425525_Examining_Contract_Cheating_Essay_Mill_Use_and_Academic_Misconduct_by_Students_on_Health_Courses

Newton, P. M., & Lang, C. (2016). Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties. In T. Bretag (Ed.), Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 249-271). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

O’BRien, N., & Smith, A. (2015, June 6). Cheating scandal: Sydney university to review medical study unit. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/education/cheating-scandal-sydney-university-to-review-medical-study-unit-20150606-ghi5d2.html

Plagiarism.org. (2017). How big of a problem in contract cheating?   Retrieved from http://www.plagiarism.org/blog/2017/12/12/how-big-of-a-problem-is-contract-cheating

Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (UK) (QAA). (2017). Contracting to cheat in higher education: How to address contract cheating, the use of third-party services and essay mills  Retrieved from http://www.qaa.ac.uk/en/Publications/Documents/Contracting-to-cheat-in-higher-education.pdf

Rogerson, A. M. (2017). Detecting contract cheating in essay and report submissions: process, patterns, clues and conversations. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 13(1), 10. doi:10.1007/s40979-017-0021-6

Tonkin, A. L. (2015). “Lifting the carpet” on cheating in medical school exams. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 351(August), 22-29.

Turnitin. (2013). Paying for plagiarism (webinar). Retrieved from http://go.turnitin.com/webcast/paying-for-plagiarism

University of Alberta. (n.d.). Student Conduct and Accountability: Proving Misconduct.   Retrieved from https://www.ualberta.ca/provost/dean-of-students/student-conduct-and-accountability/proving-misconduct

Walker, M., & Townley, C. (2012). Contract cheating: A new challenge for academic honesty? Journal of Academic Ethics, 10(1), 27–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-012-9150-y

If you would like  a copy of this talk, please e-mail me at seaton (at) ucalgary (dot) ca

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.

 

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Exploring the Intersection Between Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Academic Integrity Among EAL Students in Canadian Higher Education

February 12, 2019

JET 50(1)My colleague, Amy Burns, and I recently published this article in the Journal of Educational Thought.

Abstract

ABSTRACT: In this article, we examine selected literature on the implementation of culturally responsive pedagogy in higher education with regard to academic integrity among international students who speak English as an Additional Language (EAL). The question that guided this work was: How can Canadian post-secondary educators demonstrate culturally sensitive responses to plagiarism for international EAL students? Within this examination we used Sleeter’s (2011) critique of culturally responsive pedagogy as a framework to deepen our reflection of how to address plagiarism issues among the EAL population. We related each of Sleeter’s four observances of oversimplification to the notion of plagiarism and its prevention, to contextualize and connect the notion of culturally responsive pedagogy to academic integrity. Using the research literature to ground our recommendations, we conclude with strategies for instructors to support culturally responsive ways of addressing plagiarism with international EAL higher education students.

Keywords: culturally responsive pedagogy, higher education, English as an Additional Language, academic integrity, Canada, plagiarism

Please cite this article as: Eaton, S. E., & Burns, A. (2018). Exploring the intersection between culturally responsive pedagogy and academic integrity among EAL students in Canadian higher education. Journal of Educational Thought, 51(3), 339-359.

If you are interested in receiving a full copy of this article send me an email at:

seaton (at) ucalgary (dot) ca

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.

 


Multilingual Essay Mills: Understanding Contract Cheating among Second Language Learners – Workshop

February 1, 2019

U of C logo - 2015As many of you know, I’ve been developing a research program on academic integrity over the past few years. Last year I began collaborating with my friend and colleague, Dr. Roswita Dressler, on a project that brings together our combined expertise in academic integrity and language learning.

It started when I noticed that almost all of the research that I’d seen about contract cheating was focused almost exclusively on services provided in English. That led us to ask ourselves what the market was students of second languages. We undertook a rapid review to help us get a general sense of the landscape. We wrote up the results and they have been accepted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. I’ll post about it when the publication comes out later this year.

We are also doing a workshop at the University of Calgary’s Language Research Centre  to help teachers of second languages build their understanding of what the contract cheating industry is and why they need to pay attention.

Workshop description

Contract Cheating_Poster - LRC WorkshopContract cheating happens when students have a third party complete academic work on their behalf. The term was coined by UK researchers Clarke and Lancaster (2006). It includes, but it not limited to essay mills and homework completion services. Suppliers of this form of “black market” academic work exist mainly online. Students can simply upload a digital copy of their assignment instructions to a website, insert a delivery date and pay for the work by credit card. Contract cheating is big business. Owings and Nelson (2014) found the essay mill industry in the United States alone to be valued at a minimum $100 million USD. Estimates show that over 71,000 post-secondary students in Canada buy academic work online (Eaton, 2018). There is growing evidence to suggest that contract cheating is not limited to academic work completed in English, but also in a variety of world languages.

In this workshop, you will learn more about what contract cheating is, how it happens, and how second language learners can order homework tasks, essays and even theses from online providers, customized to the exact instructions of an assignment. We will discuss strategies for prevention and detection, along with an examination of what to do if you suspect a case of contract cheating among your students.

Date and time: Friday, February 15, 3:00 – 4:00 p.m.

Location: Craigie Hall, 4th floor, Room D-420

This workshop is open to the public and is free to attend.

References:

Clarke, R., & Lancaster, T. (2006). Eliminating the successor to plagiarism: Identifying the usage of contract cheating sites. Paper presented at the Second International Plagiarism Conference, Gateshead, United Kingdom.

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Contract cheating: A Canadian perspective.  Retrieved from http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcblog/2018/07/24/contract-cheating-a-canadian-perspective/

Owings, S., & Nelson, J. (2014). The essay industry. Mountain Plains Journal of Business and Economics, 15, 1-21. http://www.mountainplains.org/articles/2014/General%20Research/Mountain_Plains_Journal_of_Business_and_Economics_Volume_15_2014_1-21_General_Research_Owings.pdf

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.

 


Call for Proposals: Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity

January 2, 2019

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We invite submissions for the Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity. All submissions will undergo double-blind peer review. Successful proposals will be invited to submit full papers for peer-reviewed proceedings.

Submit your proposal here: https://ocs.ucalgary.ca/index.php/CSAI/2019CSAI/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions

Abstract

500 words, maximum. Summarize the scope, purpose, results and educational implication of your work. Indicate the value of your proposed submission to symposium participants.

Include 5-10 keywords. We encourage the use of  “Canada” as one of your keywords.

Types of submissions

Paper: We welcome a variety of formats including but not limited to: Empirical research, conceptual scholarship, policy analyses, evidence-informed position papers, community outreach and case studies. Submissions should be substantiated with high quality evidence (e.g. references). Time: 20 minutes, with and additional 5 minutes for Q & A

Poster: We welcome posters that showcase one of these particular kinds of contributions:

  • institutional initiatives (departmental, faculty or institutional)
  • student inquiry / research

All presenters are expected to register for the conference and pay the registration fee, even if only one presenter shares the work on behalf of a partnership or a group.

We regret that we are unable to accommodate virtual presentations. Presenters must attend in person to share their work.

Author Guidelines

We request that authors attend to these submission guidelines:

  • Submit in Word format.
  • English is the primary language of the conference.
  • Submissions should be approximately 500 words, including references.
  • 2-3 Key learning outcomes. “At the end of the session, participants will be able to…”
  • How to make your session interactive.
  • Include tables and figures within the body of your submission, labelled as per APA.
  • Use APA 6th edition for style, formatting, citations and references
  • Double-spaced
  • 12-point font
  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Title: Maximum 12 words
  • Use concise headings
  • Use up to three levels of headings.
  • Organize your submission with key elements such as: Introduction; Conceptual/Theoretical Framework; Methodology / Approach; Results / Findings; Significance/Implications; Conclusion; References. (These are just suggestions.)
  • Author bios – 50 words each.

Ensure all sources cited in the body of your submission are also listed in the References. Limit self-citations to a maximum of 3 sources.

Submissions should be blind, meaning that author information should not appear anywhere in the paper. Author information should also be stripped out of the metadata (i.e. document properties).

Ensure your submission clearly shows the value-add your submission would have for symposium participants.

The submitting author is responsible for ensuring that any and all co-authors have read and approved the final submission.

Check out the full symposium details here: . Registration fees apply.

Deadline to submit proposals: Extended to February 15, 2019!

Check out our Quick Guide with tips on how to submit your proposal – csai – proposal submission quick guide

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.

 


Research Assistant job posting – Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity – April 2019

October 24, 2018

University of Calgary logoWe are planning a national symposium on academic integrity at the University of Calgary. I’ll be sharing more details about the symposium soon. Right now, we are looking for a Research Assistant to help us with the planning, organization and management of the Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity – April 17-18, 2019.

A job description is below. We are expecting this role to have an increasing time commitment as we approach the actual event in April, so availability during March and April 2019 is critical.

This position is open to both undergraduate and graduate students, currently enrolled at the University of Calgary. Being currently enrolled as a student at the University of Calgary is a requirement for this position.

There is one position available and the person must be available to work in person on campus. A full job description follows.

Research Assistant – Job Description

Project: Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity – April 17-18, 2019

Start date: Immediate

Maximum: 12 hours/week (3 hour shifts) – Scheduled as per project needs.

Work term: Fall 2018 and Winter 2019 terms

Work location: University of Calgary, main campus

Job Description:

The Research Assistant is responsible for working as part of the symposium planning team that supports the Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity

Duties include:

  • Attend and actively participate in team meetings.
  • Assist with symposium planning and logistics.
  • Assist with symposium promotion, including social media.
  • Maintain detailed and organized project documentation, including reports, team meeting notes, etc.
  • Manage a team of student volunteers.
  • Assist with the preparation and publication of peer-reviewed conference proceedings.
  • Communicate with conference participants, as needed.
  • Assist with clerical work as needed.
  • Other duties as assigned.

Previous Experience/Qualifications:

  • Must be currently enrolled as a student at the University of Calgary.
  • Previous experience with event planning and/or volunteer coordination is an asset.
  • Independent and self-driven candidate is ideal.
  • Ability to function independently yet collaboratively within a team.
  • Attention to detail is critical.
  • Exceptional communication skills required to interact with other staff members, conference participants.
  • Excellent oral and written skills in English.
  • Commit to being fully available in person for conference preparations April 8—16, 2019.
  • Commit to attending the symposium in person for full-days on April 17-18, 2019.

Additional Information:

This is a part-time, casual position. We anticipate this role will include a maximum of 175 hours, distributed over shifts of not less than 3 hours and not more than 7 hours, with a maximum of 12 hours per week. There will be no hours scheduled on weekends or statutory holidays.

This is an on-campus position and the successful individual must be available in person for team meetings.

Application deadline: Friday, November 16, 2018

Please submit your cover letter and c.v. to the Symposium Co-Chairs:

Dr. Sarah Elaine EatonDr. Jennifer Lock, and  Dr. Meadow Schroeder

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.

 


2018 International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating

October 4, 2018

At the University of Calgary we will mark the International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating on October 17, 2018. We join with dozens of other institutions worldwide who have pledged their commitment to take action by registering their participate with the International Center for Academic Integrity.

ICAI Intl Day of Action 2018.jpeg

Contract cheating includes, but is not limited to, essay mills, homework completion services and impersonators for exams and even course work. Join us for an engaging and invigorating campus-wide discussion about how we tackle this complex subject.

At the University of Calgary, I’ll be co-hosting a campus-wide event with our our Academic Integrity Coordinator, Lee-Ann Penaluna, hosted by the Taylor Institute for Teaching and Learning.

In this session participants will:

  • Explore what contract cheating is in a post-secondary context.
  • Explore how multi-stakeholder approaches are needed to address this complex subject.
  • Reflect on concrete ways to detect and deter contract cheating.

We are excited to announce we’ll have a special guest presentation via Skype from Dr. Thomas Lancaster, from the UK, whose is one of the world’s leading experts on contract cheating.

We will also join in the social media white board campaign, using the hashtags #excelwithintegrity and #defeatthecheat.

2018 International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating

The event is open to everyone on campus, including students, faculty, staff and others. We also welcome members of the public to find out more about what contract cheating is and how to take action to promote integrity in education. Register to attend the University of Calgary event here.

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.


My Teaching Story: Celebrating 25 Years

September 4, 2018

Sarah Elaine Eaton - 2018-09-03a-small.jpgThis 2018-2019 academic year I celebrate my 25th year of teaching in higher education.

Here’s an overview of what that looks like:

  • Years as a sessional instructor: 22
  • Years as a full-time faculty member: 2 completed. Entering Year 3
  • Number of educational institutions: 2 institutions for credit courses; 4 institutions for non-credit courses
  • Number of additional organizations where I have given workshops or individual training sessions: I can’t remember or count
  • Levels taught: Undergraduate, graduate, continuing education, non-credit workshops, teacher training, employee training
  • Number of students taught: A few thousand, at least, but I haven’t kept track.
  • Current position: Assistant Professor (tenure-track)

Like many academics, my career has zig-zagged. My first teaching experience was as a Master’s level graduate teaching assistant. I was a brand-new graduate student. I was given a class list and a textbook and told, “Here. Go teach.”

Even though my official title was “Graduate Teaching Assistant” (“TA” for short), I was also what is called the “Instructor of Record”. That means that I was officially responsible for the entire course, including developing the course outline, all instruction, tests, examinations and grading.

I’ve heard that it is no longer permitted for TAs to be the “instructor of record” and that TAs actually need to have some support and mentoring now. Back when I started, graduate TAs were largely left on their own, to do the same work as professors, at a much lower pay rate.

I remember attending a day-and-a-half training session before my first teaching assignment. It was largely focused on learning styles, which has since become a highly contested concept. Things have changed for the better since then. TAs (at our institution at least), get training and mentoring along the way. They are supervised by the Instructor of Record, which means they get to learn how to teach in a less risky, more supported environment.

The following spring and summer, I was hired to teach the same course again, but because spring and summer courses were handled by a different administrative unit at the university at that time, my title changed to “sessional instructor”, which remains the typical term for this type of appointment in Canada. This classification goes by different names depending where you are. Some synonyms include:

  • part-time contingent faculty
  • part-time lecturer
  • contract faculty
  • adjunct lecturer
  • adjunct professor
  • adjunct faculty

For more than two decades I worked as sessional instructor, sometimes teaching up to ten credit courses per year, supplemented by teaching continuing education courses, workshops and employee training sessions. I taught at any institution or organization that would hire me. I also took on other work in an educational context such as program evaluation and even did clerical work in educational institutions.

This year, I will celebrate my 25th year of teaching. Because of the patchwork nature of my career, no one has kept track of this experience but me. And even I have lost track of the number of organizations where I’ve taught workshops or short-term courses. I began teaching at a time before computerized HR records were kept, and everything was done on paper. Even I don’t have every contract letter or pay stub from every teaching gig I’ve ever had.

In 2016, I was hired as a full-time Assistant Professor (tenure track), for which I am truly grateful. Not long after I started in my full-time role I had lunch with one of my former professors from my Master’s program, who is now a colleague. I recall her saying, “You did it! Most people give up, but you didn’t!” She’s right. I didn’t give up. I love teaching and I believe it as much a calling as it is a career. I am enjoying my career now more than ever.

My curriculum vitae cannot accurately show that for 22 years, I travelled from one institution or organization to the next, sometimes teaching for three different places in the same day and the number of hours in any given day that I worked often exceeded what is typically regarded as “full-time hours”. It was a patchwork of part-time jobs that allowed me to pay the bills.

Twenty-two years is a long, long time to spend without job security, benefits or a pension. People who have had their full-time teaching jobs for a long time can’t relate to that kind of life. I have had colleagues who have had full-time roles for a long time share their thinly-veiled assumption that if you’re good enough, you can get a full-time job. That may be true to a certain degree, but there are other factors that can come into play. If one is not able to move to a new location in order to take on a full-time role, for example, then options become more limited.

Other colleagues have declared that “Sessionals are not faculty!”, dismissing their opinions, views or contributions to the academy. The underlying point in such an argument is that only those with full-time faculty appointments have legitimate status. Those whose status is uncertain or part-time effectively have “less than” status, which is neither credible, nor legitimate. But I have seen this situation from both sides of the table now: both as a long-term sessional and now as a tenure-track assistant professor.

As I celebrate a quarter of a century of teaching experience this year, I can say one thing for sure: Teachers matter. Whether you are part-time, full-time, and regardless of whatever your title says you are. You are a teacher at heart. You keep your students at the heart of what you do, no matter where you are or who you teach.

For anyone else out there who is currently working as Sessional / Adjunct / Contingent Faculty, let me just say: You are not alone. You work hard. You have grit and tenacity.The work you do is important. You are good enough. Actually, you are more than good enough.

I challenge you to share your own story. What does this academic year mean to you? What do you have to celebrate? What message do you want to share with others? What’s your story? I would love to hear from you!

#academiclife #highered #lifeofanacademic

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the Werklund School of Education or the University of Calgary.


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