Why Superboards Could Signal the Dismemberment of Alberta’s Higher Education System

January 23, 2021

A recent CBC News article by Janet French highlights the Alberta government’s plan to establish superboards to oversee higher education in the province. It is imperative for Albertans to understand the possible implication that superboards might have on our post-secondary system.

French’s article worth a read. And pay attention to every word.

Similar to California?

Someone asked me recently whether there were other examples of this type of superboard governance that we could refer to get a concrete idea of what it might mean for Alberta. My response at the time was that to the best of my knowledge there were no such similar systems in the Commonwealth.

Canadian higher education shares much in common with its Commonwealth cousins, as it is based largely on the British system of education. It is a long history lesson, but suffice to say that the American higher education system differs from ours in some fundamental ways. Although the Canadian and American systems started out in a similar vein, the American Revolution caused some fundamental shifts that led to a bifurcation of the educational trajectories of both countries. The resulting Constitution of the United States, enacted after the revolution, provides for a far more open and entrepreneurial approach to education.

This is one reason that there are literally thousands of private universities and colleges in the United States that operate with much less oversight or quality assurance than Canadian universities and colleges. Overall, the quality of higher education across Canada is generally more consistent and steady and we do not have the drastic differences in institutional reputation that affect our neighbours to the south. This is also due, in part, to differences in how higher education is governed in both countries. Although Canadian and American universities share much in common in some ways, in other ways, they differ dramatically. One of those ways is governance.

MRU political science professor and political commentator, Duane Bratt sparked a lively conversation about this topic on his Twitter feed. One of the comments that came up is that a unified university system seems to work for the University of California (UC), so maybe it could work here. The UC system includes ten universities such as UC Berkeley, UC San Diego, etc. (As an aside, the University of Calgary’s own president, Ed McCauley, worked at UC Santa Barbara before returning to the University of Calgary in 2011, so he is no doubt well versed on the UC system.)

A system similar to the UC system could be one possible outcome if one or more superboards for post-secondary education in Alberta were to be implemented. However, I would point out that although the University of California has an excellent reputation in many respects, it exists as one institution within a larger state context.

The state of California has some of the most flexible (lax?) laws around the operation of educational entities. Retired FBI Agent, Allen Ezell and his colleague John Bear, write extensively about this in their book, Degree Mills. To paraphrase some of their key ideas, just about anyone can open a business in the state of California and call it a school. This has led to a proliferation of private entities offering so-called educational programs of questionable quality, or in some cases, outright fraudulent credentials. Although the University of California may be a reputable school, it is situated in a state where, without exaggeration, literally hundreds of other alleged universities and colleges dole out parchments with little to no credibility behind them. In my opinion, the larger higher education system that exists in the state of California is not one to which Alberta ought to aspire.

Lack of clarity regarding a possible superboard

In his remarks to the General Faculties Council (GFC) on December 10, 2020 President McCauley commented that the University of Calgary has been advocating for “the continuance of bicameral University governance and autonomy” (p. 2). The minutes of the GFC meeting are a matter of public record and can be found here.

These remarks at GFC, as well as commentary made by our executive leaders since then should not be taken lightly. They signal that our university president, along with other university presidents in Alberta, are concerned about the possibility of the dismantling of the bi-cameral governance model that currently exists at our institutions (i.e., at the University of Calgary, this means the Board of Governors and General Faculties Council) if a superboard to oversee universities is established. This website provides a brief overview of the University of Calgary’s governance and leadership.

It is not clear at the moment how an Alberta superboard for post-secondary governance might be structured or what powers they might have. It is also not clear if there would be one board for universities and another for colleges or if each system would be overseen by its own superboard. Right now there are more questions than answers. What is clear is that the possibility of establishment of one or more superboards to oversee higher education in Alberta poses the greatest potential for change to post-secondary governance that the province has seen in more than half a century – or perhaps ever.

A governance perspective: The potential dismemberment of Alberta’s higher education system

At this point, no one knows for certain what the superboards for higher education might mean. At the risk of sounding alarmist, if superboards are established, the possibility of the bicameral governance structure being dismantled is a real possibility. In turn, this could lead to a radical restructuring of Alberta’s post-secondary institutions.

I believe this is something we must pay close attention to. Funding cuts are one thing. The possibility of the dismemberment of our university governance structure is something else entirely. I use the word “dismemberment” here intentionally – and quite literally. To dismember is to sever the limbs from the body. The Board of Governors and the General Faculties Council are our university’s governing bodies. If the university does not have its own governing bodies, it would very likely lose its autonomy and its ability to function in the way it has for decades. This could be the case of every post-secondary institution in Alberta. Without bi-cameral governance, every single one of Alberta’s universities could be crippled in terms of their ability to make decisions for themselves.

When people hear that I study ethics and integrity in higher education, they often think that I study matters related to student conduct. Although that is true, it is not the entire story. The word “integrity” comes from the Latin, integritas, meaning to integrate or to make whole. A breach of integrity means that something that was previously whole has been compromised. In my opinion, the establishment of a superboard to govern higher education in our province could represent a direct threat to the integrity of our university system.

These superboards have not yet been formed, but now is very much the time for advocates of higher education to pay attention and become educated. At the very least I recommend spending some time on the Alberta 2030 Initiative website to find out more about some of what is planned for post-secondary education in Alberta.

I encourage you to learn as much as you can about how and why bi-cameral governance is a hallmark of Canadian higher education and how the autonomy it provides to individual institutions promotes ethical governance and decision-making in a variety of ways. Governance work is not values-free and nor is it agnostic. As Jenny Ozga so eloquently points out in her book, governance and policy work can be a form of advocacy. The very values that the University of Calgary – and other post-secondary institutions in Alberta – hold are lived out not only in the decisions that we make, but through the structures and systems in place that allow us to make those decisions in the first place.

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, and the Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity, University of Calgary, Canada.

Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the University of Calgary or anyone else.


Workshop: Exploring Racism and Academic Integrity through a Circle Process

October 16, 2020

ATESL 2020I’m excited to partner with colleagues from Norquest College and the Alberta Council on Academic Integrity to present this workshop at the Alberta Teachers’ of English as a Second Language (ATESL) 2020 E- Conference: Seeds of Possibility: Curiosity, Drive, and Innovation.

Workshop Description

In this session participants will explore and experience the Circle of Courage and circle process by engaging in a dialogue on anti-racism and racism related to academic misconduct.

The Circle of Courage (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 2005) is a model of resilience and positive development based on Indigenous values of Belonging, Mastery, Independence and Generosity. Applied together with a circle process, this way of approaching the relational space in classrooms helps create the conditions for students and instructors to engage more authentically and openly in difficult complex topics. As a holistic approach to discussion this a way to spur conversation about the dynamic faced by English as additional language learners.

Keywords: Academic integrity; Restorative Justice; Restorative Practices; Circle Process; Racism

Reference:

Brendtro, L., Brokenleg, M., & Bockern, V. (2005). The circle of courage and positive psychology. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 14(3). 130-136.

Workshop Materials

You can download our workshop materials for free from here: http://hdl.handle.net/1880/112689

Presenter bios

Sheryl Boisvert, B.Ed, CPA, CGA is currently a full-time instructor at NorQuest College. Though she has performed a variety of roles since 2001, Sheryl has found being an instructor to be the most fulfilling.  She has always believed that students gain a better understanding of the material they learn when they can go beyond textbook theory and put concepts into practice.

Nazanin Teymouri, MBA, is as an instructor at NorQuest College in the Faculty of Business, Environment, and Technology. Currently her time at the college is split between teaching and co-leading research initiatives on academic integrity. With a background in communication and business, her focus is on analysis, cultural understanding, and collaboration aimed at bettering the learning environment.

Jamie Ahksistowaki Medicine Crane is Blackfoot from Kainai and Piikani, an activist, advocate, educator, and multi-disciplinary artist. Shes very passionate in education and is currently working with NorQuest College as a curriculum developer- in regards to Indigenous education, history and perspectives, building faculty capacity, supporting curriculum development and Indigenization strategy.

Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. She is a long-standing member of ATESL. Her research focuses on academic integrity.

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, and the Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity, University of Calgary, Canada. Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the University of Calgary.


Is the Hon. Demetrios Nicolaides, Alberta Minister of Advanced Education involved with contract cheating?

August 15, 2020

On Saturday, August 14, 2020, questions began to circulate on Twitter about whether Alberta’s Minister of Advanced Education, the Hon. Demetrios Nicolaides, worked for a contract cheating company.

The question seems to have first been raised by Kim Siever on Twitter. The question Siever asks whether the man now serving as Alberta’s Minister of Advanced Education is the same person who has a user profile with the same name on the website UnemployedProfessor.com.

Sevier Twitter

If the two people are one and the same, this would be an egregious breach of public trust. Why? Because we want to have confidence in our elected political officials, especially one appointed as the provincial minister to oversee higher education. We want to have confidence that a government minister in charge of advanced education for our province would not supply services to the shady underbelly of education that facilitates the buying and selling of fraudulent academic work on the Internet.

Let’s look at what we know and consider some questions we should be asking.

The company: UnemployedProfessors.com

This company provides services includes completing written academic work on behalf of students including anything “from response papers to midterm and final essays, all the way to dissertations and thesis chapters”.

UnemployedProfessors.com Screen shot https://unemployedprofessors.com/Service.aspx. Retrieved 15 Aug 2020.

UnemployedProfessors.com Screen shot https://unemployedprofessors.com/Service.aspx. Retrieved 15 Aug 2020.

Although I was unable to find information about how long the company has been operating, a search of the Internet Archive WayBack Machine, shows that the website URL shows the site first became active in 2011.

UnemployedProfessors.com Way Back Machine Screen Shot 2020-08-15 at 4.24.02 PM

UnemployedProfessors.com Way Back Machine Screen Shot taken 15 Aug 2020

The contract cheating industry

Companies such as these have been around for decades. They are known as “term-paper mills”, “essay mills” and “contract cheating companies”. They are part of the global commercial industry that has been estimated to be worth more than $1 Billion USD. The term “contract cheating” was coined by Thomas Lancaster and the late Robert Clarke, two computer scientists in the UK, who found computer science students outsourcing their coding assignments to online suppliers. Their work has become foundational on the topic.

In 2018, I wrote a blog post estimating the extent of contract cheating in Canada. Back in 2018, I estimated that just over 71,000 post-secondary students in Canada could be buying academic work from contract cheating companies. I now believe that number to be low, but we don’t have a lot of data on this in Canada. In contrast, in the UK and Australia, research around contract cheating is well funded and national quality assurance bodies such as the QAA (UK) and TESQA (Australia) are actively working to combat contract cheating.

In 2019, my colleague Roswita Dressler and I conducted a study that showed that commercial contract companies are actively marketing to Canadian students in both English and French, and that they target students as young as Grade six.

Can we believe the information posted for username “DemetriosNicolaides” on UnemployedProfessors.com?

Well, let’s be honest, companies whose business focus on providing fraudulent academic work for students to submit are not exactly known for their credibility.

If the user profile details on UnemployedProfessor are legitimate (which is questionable), then the user with this name has completed more than 740 assignments across a variety of disciplines.

User Profile "DemetriosNicolaides" Screenshot date: 14 Aug 2020

User Profile “DemetriosNicolaides” Screenshot date: 14 Aug 2020

The most recent user reviews (if they are actually legitimate user reviews) were posted in August 2020.

User reviews - Screen Shot 2020-08-15 at 2.05.20 PM

Are the Hon. Minister and the user “DemetriosNicolaides” the same person?

The user who goes by the name “DemetriosNicolaides” on UnemployedProfessors appears to have set up their profile in 2016. Or at least, that’s as far back as we can get information about this user by looking up their profile using the WayBackMachine. This is a screenshot of the profile archived by the WayBackMachine archived on April 18, 2016, which is the earliest available record of this user profile:

User DemetriosNicolaides 2016 - Screen Shot 2020-08-15 at 2.15.19 PM

The profile associated with the username “DemetriosNicolaides” appears to have similar academic credentials to the Hon. Minister. The current user profile indicates a PhD in Political Science from the University of Cyprus, with a specialization in Conflict Resolution. The official profile of the Hon. Demetrios Nicolaides from the Legislative Assembly of Alberta indicates that the holds a PhD in political science from the University of Cyprus.

The devil is in the details…

The user profile on UnemployedProfessor seems to have changed between 2016 and 2020. If you look closely at the current and archived profiles, we can see how the details have changed.

The 2016 profile indicates that the user (allegedly) held a PhD from the University of Cyprus, an MA from the European Peace University and a BA in History and International Relations from the University of Calgary.

The 2020 profile from the same user indicates an (alleged) PhD from the University of Cyprus, an MA from European Peace University and no information about where the Bachelor’s degree was from. The Bachelor’s degree information differs from the 2016 archived profile and the 2020 profile. (Incidentally, the European Peace University lost its accreditation from Austrian authorities in 2013 and now appears to be defunct, so there is no way to check to see who its graduates were.)

So, what we can say is that the user behind this profile has changed their (alleged) educational credentials and profile information between the time the profile seems to have first become active in 2016 to now. Looking at changes to this user profile using the WayBack Machine, it seems that the information changed sometime between 2017 and 2020, though there is no evidence about exactly when the change happened.

I am not a linguist by training, but I do have a background in English and second languages. When I conducted a close read of the current profile of this user in detail, I can say that it would surprise me if this profile were written by a native English speaker. The concluding line of the profile as it is currently written says, “Trust me for the best and you will never be disappointed by my that hire me button and lets talk more.” This is awkward phrasing, with punctuation errors (i.e., no apostrophe in “lets”) and seems to lack coherence. (Personally, I wouldn’t hire this user to write anything for me!)

User profile for "DemetriosNicolaides". Screenshot taken 2020-08-15 at 1.32.12 PM

User profile for “DemetriosNicolaides”. Screenshot taken 15 August 2020.

There is text highlighted in green on the 2020 user profile that claims, “I’m a P.h.D holder and Experienced Academic Writer”.

Well, anyone with a PhD knows that there is no period in between the “P” and the “h”. We write it “PhD”; “Ph.D.”, or even “PhD.”, but never with the period in between the “P” and the “h”. That in itself would seem to be a giveaway that this user behind this profile doesn’t actually hold a PhD of any kind.

For a comparison of the writing, here is a link to the PhD thesis of the Demetrios Nicolaides who currently serves as the Hon. Minister of Advanced Education for Alberta. It is worth noting that the dissertation is archived as a matter of public record by the University of Cyprus in the official university digital repository, available for anyone to look at. Again, I am not a forensic linguist, but it seems fairly obvious that the person who wrote the PhD thesis archived by the University of Cyprus and the person who has a user profile on Unemployed Professors.com seem to have completely different writing styles, as well as different language ability and competence.

It is worth noting that when questions began to arise on Twitter about this user, I took a screen shot that showed the user had completed 746 assignments on behalf of students, as of 14 August 2020.

Curiously, as I was writing this blog post a day later, the number went up by 1, to 747. So, there is evidence to suggest that the user is still active on this site; and in fact, it would seem that they have done a gig over the past 24 hours. If you look closely at the first screenshot I took on August 14 and the second one I took on August 15, you can see the number of completed assignments has gone up.

Given the questions that have arisen on Twitter and that the Hon. Minister was copied on those Tweets, if the person behind the user profile and the Hon. Minister were indeed the same person, it would be very puzzling indeed that the supplier would keep writing for the service in the midst of a tirade of questions!

So, there are a number of inconsistencies in all of this.

Questions worth asking

Is it possible that someone to set up a fake profile to discredit the minister?

The short answer is yes, it is possible.

In my opinion, that scenario is improbable, because this user profile can be traced back to 2016. It would have to be one hell of a dedicated faker to have started that long ago and kept up the efforts to discredit the person over four years.

Is it possible that there are two people with the exact same name, one of whom is supplying fraudulent essays and the of whom is a politician?

Yes, it is possible, but also improbable. One website indicates that about just over 3600 people in the world have the surname “Nicolaides”, with most of them being in or from Cyprus. Compare that with, for example, the surname “Smith”, which about 4.5 million people have.

The chances of two individuals with the surname “Nicolaides” both holding PhDs in political science seem slim.

Isn’t it weird that the users who provide services to contract cheating companies would use their real name in their profile?

Yes, that would be weird. Like, really weird. It is easy for suppliers to set up a profile with just about any user name they want. Someone would have to be pretty stupid to use their real name as their user name on a contract cheating site, to be honest.

Is it possible that whoever is behind this user profile just picked the user name “NicolaidesDemetrios”?

Yes, that is also possible. After closely scrutinizing all of the available evidence, my best guess would be that is the most probable scenario.

I am not a professional legal investigator, but I am a damn good researcher. My conclusion is that it seems highly unlikely the Hon. Minister of Advanced Education for the Province of Alberta and the person behind the username “DemetriosNicolaides” on UnemployedProfessor.com are the same person.

How long would it take someone to complete the 740+ assignments associated with this user?

There is no clear answer to this. It is impossible to tell how long the assignments were, what type of papers they were, or how long it took to complete each one. The only available details are the ones noted on the user profile, but no telling if those are real or not.

If, for the sake of argument, we used 2 hours per assignment as a rough estimate, then if you consider the 747 (allegedly) completed assignments we’d be looking at about 1500 hours of work. Given that a standard work week is 35 hours, that would equate to about 43 continuous weeks of work. That’s quite a bit of time… like almost a year of full-time employment just writing essays for students.

How much money has this user made from working for this site?

Unknown. These companies do not provide details about how much money their suppliers earn. One expert in the field, Dr. Thomas Lancaster, has estimated that low-end workers can be paid as little as $4 USD for assignments up to 2000 words. In another scenario, if a student paid $300 USD for an assignment, the supplier might receive $140 for that gig. (Check out Lancaster’s slides form one of his presentations on the topic.)

Although some of the commercial sites promise big bucks for their writers, the reality is that it can a miserable way to earn a bit of money.

Isn’t this illegal?

There is draft legislation in Australia proposed to make contract cheating illegal. New legislation in Ireland makes provisions to prosecute those who facilitate academic cheating, including those who supply academic work to students.

In Canada, writing essays for students is not illegal. It is immoral and it is also an egregious form of academic misconduct that can result in consequences that include everything from failing an assignment to (in extreme cases), expulsion, but it isn’t actually illegal in Canada to buy or sell academic work. It is illegal for students to hire someone to impersonate them to take a test or an exam. In a report I did into major academic integrity violations in Canada, I offer highlights of three cases that resulted in the arrest of imposters hired by students to take exams on their behalf.

So, what’s next?

Sorry, folks, I don’t think there’s an actual scandal here involving the Hon. Minister of Advanced Education.

There is, however, a desperate need in Canada to raise awareness about the contract cheating industry. I estimate that Canada lags behind the UK and Australia by at least a decade in terms of research, advocacy, education and legislation. If you are keen to know more, here are three concrete things you can do:

  1. Inform yourself about what contract cheating is and how it works. There is a strong and growing network of researchers who specialize in understanding the commercial contract cheating industry. Some people (besides me) whose work you can look up include: Tracey Bretag (Australia), Cath Ellis (Australia), Thomas Lancaster (UK), among others.
  2. Participate in the 2020 International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating on October 21. On this day, educators and advocates across the world will be raising awareness about what contract cheating is and how to stop it.
  3. Contact your MLA or Member of Parliament to let them know that you are concerned about contract cheating and its impact on Canadian higher education. Ask them to take action to make contract cheating illegal in Canada.

The more people that think this issue is important, the more action will be taken on it, not only by researchers, but by policy makers and politicians.

Update – 16 Aug 2020

Since I wrote this post less than 24 hours ago, the individual behind the profile on UnemployedProfessors.com has changed their user name to “Prof_Wilfred“:

UP user Screen Shot 2020-08-16 at 7.00.51 AM

Related posts:

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, and the Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity, University of Calgary, Canada. Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the University of Calgary.


Planning for school re-closure: We can’t say we weren’t warned

July 26, 2020

Alberta Education Pandemic Planning GuideThe in the Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities, published by the Alberta government there is ample helpful guidance for school administrators and other educational leaders.

Of particular interest right now is Schedule K of the guide: Draft letter to inform parents schools are reopened. We want to pay particular attention to this statement: “… If more people get sick, schools may need to close again.” (p. 64).

So if (when?) schools are closed down again sometime in the 2020-2021 school year, we can’t say we were not warned. This was anticipated in the pandemic planning guide.

Published 7 years ago.

That’s right. This guide was published in 2013, long before most of us even knew what a coronavirus was. In the draft letter to parents, school administrators were guided to prepare parents for the possibility schools needing to close again after re-opening (p. 64).

Other points of note:

“… it is possible employee absenteeism could be in the 30% to 40% range, with at least 20% absenteeism being likely.” (p. 10)

Your influenza pandemic plan is a living document. It needs to be reviewed and revised regularly.” (p. 12) (Note: To the best of my knowledge, the guide has never been updated since it was written.)

Employers could be liable, through possible claims in negligence. Lawsuits could be initiated by students, staff, or third parties who have been harmed.” (p. 14)

the plan should provide for significant staff absences and assess whether the School Authority could provide educational services in the event of staff/student absences. The plan should also take into consideration how the School Authority would continue to operate without a full complement of staff.” (p. 24)

Also important is what is missing from the planning guide. The words “Indigenous”, “First Nations” or “Aboriginal” (with the latter two terms being more common at the time the document was published) are utterly absent from the document. This indicates that at the time the plan was developed, there were no particular considerations made for Alberta’s Indigenous communities.

So, as we are preparing for re-opening, we would be wise to prepare for the possibility of re-closing again, too.

Read the whole planning guide here:

Government of Alberta. (2013). Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities. Retrieved from https://education.alberta.ca/media/1477307/pandemicplanningguide.pdf

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, and the Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity, University of Calgary, Canada. Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the University of Calgary.


Alberta Council on Academic Integrity: Spring 2020 Meeting

February 18, 2020

I am excited to share that the Alberta Council on Academic Integrity is planning its spring 2020 meeting!

The council was created in 2019 following the Canadian Symposium on Academic Integrity. We are comprised of a group of like-minded individuals committed to supporting academic integrity in Alberta. The council hosted its inaugural meeting in August 2019 at the University of Calgary, followed by a second meeting in October at Norquest College.

Our work is aligned with other provincial groups such as the Academic Integrity Council of Ontario (AICO), the Manitoba Academic Integrity Network (MAIN), and the BC Academic Integrity Day.

Steering Committee

There are a number of individuals committed to guiding the work of the council as it develops in its first few years. (Members listed alphabetically by institution):

  • Margaret Toye, Bow Valley College
  • Melanie (Mel) Hamilton, Lethbridge College
  • Marg Olfert, Mount Royal University
  • Nazanin Teymouri, Norquest College
  • Sheryl Boisvert, Norquest College
  • Cheryl Kier, Athabasca University
  • Sarah Elaine Eaton, University of Calgary

Lethbridge College will host the spring meeting on April 24, 2020. This will be an important meeting as we will seek approval on our council’s charter, which was presented in draft form at the fall 2019 meeting.We welcome colleagues from Alberta post-secondary institutions to join us in Lethbridge. At this point, participation is limited to those working at a recognized Alberta educational institution.

For questions about the spring meeting, contact Melanie Hamilton, Lethbridge College – melanie.hamilton (at) lethbridgecollege (dot) ca

Registration is required. Click here to register.

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This blog has had over 2 million views thanks to readers like you. If you enjoyed this post, please “like” it or share it on social media. Thanks!

Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, and the Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity, University of Calgary, Canada. Opinions are my own and do not represent those of the University of Calgary.


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