Once again, I am teaching “Writing Educational Research” to Master’s of Education (M.Ed.) students at the University of Calgary this semester. I have found that some students struggle with the process of outlining their final research papers.
Outlining is an invaluable skill that helps you to conceptualize, plan and organize your writing. I learned to outline my essays when I was in school and to this day, I use outlines for research papers and even my books. I find that organizing my ideas in an outline helps me to keep my writing focussed and clear. I even outlined my Master’s and Ph.D. theses. When my Ph.D. thesis had to be modified as I was writing up my project, having an outline helped to decide what to toss, what to keep and how to re-organize the work effectively.
Here are some excellent resources that are useful to university level students, as well as high school students and adult learners who are learning to write essays:
- How to write an outline (SUNY) – This is an excellent web page resource produced by the State University of New York (SUNY). The method they demonstrate is the same one I learned in school. It is a classic “tiered” outline. The chart on this web page presents the information in a very clear way that is easy to understand.
- How to write an outline (LAVC) – Similar to the SUNY resource, this web page by the Los Angeles Valley College Library explains the difference between a topic outline and a sentence outline, using the tiered format. This web page has some great examples of what a real outline might look like.
- Wikihow – How to write an outline – This Wiki breaks down the process of writing an outline into simple, easy-to-follow steps. The wiki also has samples of a research outline, a literature outline and a “compare and contrast” outline.
- How to outline a 5-paragraph essay – This YouTube video (4:26) offers tips on how to write a shorter essay. It is great for students who have to write shorter papers or adults who are learning how to write an essay.
- Sample qualitative research outline by Rey Ty – This YouTube video moves a bit slowly, but it gives an excellent overview of how to write an outline for a qualitative research project.
Learning to outline is a valuable skill that will serve you in school and in the workplace. A good outline keeps you focussed, organized and on track.
Readings for Writing Educational Research (EDER 603.23) http://wp.me/pNAh3-1OJ
12 Phrases to Avoid in Your Academic Research Papers http://wp.me/pNAh3-1JX
Active vs. passive voice — How to tell the difference http://wp.me/pNAh3-1HX
Why APA formatting matters http://wp.me/pNAh3-1Hc
How many sources do you need in a literature review? http://wp.me/pNAh3-1Hu
What’s the difference between a citation and a reference? http://wp.me/pNAh3-1F9
Why “as cited in” should be avoided in academic writing http://wp.me/pNAh3-1BH
10 Great writing resources for grad students – http://wp.me/pNAh3-1Bc
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Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.